796.4  Other abnormal clinical findings
ICD-9-CM Code Details and Notes
Short Title: Abn clinical finding NEC
796.4 is a billable medical code.
See Chapter Specific Guidelines
- ICD-9-CM Chapters, Sections & Parents

780-799 Symptoms, Signs, And Ill-Defined Conditions

This section includes symptoms, signs, abnormal results of laboratory or other investigative procedures, and ill-defined conditions regarding which no diagnosis classifiable elsewhere is recorded.
Signs and symptoms that point rather definitely to a given diagnosis are assigned to some category in the preceding part of the classification.
In general, categories 780-796 include the more ill-defined conditions and symptoms that point with perhaps equal suspicion to two or more diseases or to two or more systems of the body, and without the necessary study of the case to make a final diagnosis.
Practically all categories in this group could be designated as "not otherwise specified," or as "unknown etiology," or as "transient."
The Alphabetic Index should be consulted to determine which symptoms and signs are to be allocated here and which to more specific sections of the classification; the residual subcategories numbered .9 are provided for other relevant symptoms which cannot be allocated elsewhere in the classification.
The conditions and signs or symptoms included in categories 780-796 consist of:
(a) cases for which no more specific diagnosis can be made even after all facts bearing on the case have been investigated;
(b) signs or symptoms existing at the time of initial encounter that proved to be transient and whose causes could not be determined;
(c) provisional diagnoses in a patient who failed to return for further investigation or care;
(d) cases referred elsewhere for investigation or treatment before the diagnosis was made;
(e) cases in which a more precise diagnosis was not available for any other reason;
(f) certain symptoms which represent important problems in medical care and which it might be desired to classify in addition to a known cause.

790-796 Nonspecific Abnormal Findings

796 Other nonspecific abnormal findings

ICD-9-CM Index References
• Abnormal, abnormality, abnormalities clinical findings NEC
• Blood pressure fluctuating
• Findings,
• Fluctuating blood pressure
Synonyms & Definitions
SNOMED Clinical Terms Synonyms:
   • 10g monofilament sensation L foot abnormal
   • 10g monofilament sensation L foot normal
   • 10g monofilament sensation R foot abnormal
   • 8-9 month examination abnormal - for observation
   • Abdominal dullness finding
   • Abdominal migraine - symptom
   • Abdominal organ finding
   • Abnormal 11-deoxy, 17-hydroxycorticosterone
   • Abnormal ability to understand
   • Abnormal amount of urine output
   • Abnormal arterial pulse pressure
   • Abnormal biorhythm
   • Abnormal bone marrow iron
   • Abnormal capillary filling
   • Abnormal capillary fragility test
   • Abnormal carbohydrate sequence
   • Abnormal chronobiologic state
   • Abnormal circannual biorhythm
   • Abnormal circatrigintan biorhythm
   • Abnormal color
   • Abnormal consistency
   • Abnormal cortisone
   • Abnormal decrease in number
   • Abnormal decrease in quantity
   • Abnormal developmental screening
   • Abnormal distribution
   • Abnormal electron microscopy findings
   • Abnormal estradiol
   • Abnormal extracardiac tracer uptake
   • Abnormal facies
   • Abnormal female reproductive function
   • Abnormal finding on evaluation procedure
   • Abnormal findings in specimens from digestive organs and abdominal cavity
   • Abnormal food appetite
   • Abnormal frequency of defecation

Mevalonate kinase deficiency

Mevalonate kinase deficiency is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, which typically begin during infancy. Each episode of fever lasts about 3 to 6 days, and the frequency of the episodes varies among affected individuals. In childhood the fevers seem to be more frequent, occurring as often as 25 times a year, but as the individual gets older the episodes occur less often. Mevalonate kinase deficiency has additional signs and symptoms, and the severity depends on the type of the condition. There are two types of mevalonate kinase deficiency: a less severe type called hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome (HIDS) and a more severe type called mevalonic aciduria (MVA). During episodes of fever, people with HIDS typically have enlargement of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), abdominal pain, joint pain, diarrhea, skin rashes, and headache. Occasionally they will have painful sores called aphthous ulcers around their mouth. In females, these may also occur around the vagina. A small number of people with HIDS have intellectual disability, problems with movement and balance (ataxia), eye problems, and recurrent seizures (epilepsy). Rarely, people with HIDS develop a buildup of protein deposits (amyloidosis) in the kidneys that can lead to kidney failure. Fever episodes in individuals with HIDS can be triggered by vaccinations, surgery, injury, or stress. Most people with HIDS have abnormally high levels of immune system proteins called immunoglobulin D (IgD) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the blood. It is unclear why people with HIDS have high levels of IgD and IgA. Elevated levels of these immunoglobulins do not appear to cause any signs or symptoms. Individuals with HIDS do not have any signs and symptoms of the condition between fever episodes and typically have a normal life expectancy. People with MVA have signs and symptoms of the condition at all times, not just during episodes of fever. Affected children have developmental delay, progressive ataxia, progressive problems with vision, and failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive). Individuals with MVA typically have an unusually small, elongated head. In childhood or adolescence, affected individuals may develop eye problems such as inflammation of the eye (uveitis), a blue tint in the white part of the eye (blue sclera), an eye disorder called retinitis pigmentosa that causes vision loss, or clouding of the lens of the eye (cataracts). Affected adults may have short stature and may develop muscle weakness (myopathy) later in life. During fever episodes, people with MVA may have an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes. Children with MVA who are severely affected with multiple problems may live only into early childhood; mildly affected individuals may have a normal life expectancy.
   • Abnormal general body function

Mevalonate kinase deficiency

Mevalonate kinase deficiency is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, which typically begin during infancy. Each episode of fever lasts about 3 to 6 days, and the frequency of the episodes varies among affected individuals. In childhood the fevers seem to be more frequent, occurring as often as 25 times a year, but as the individual gets older the episodes occur less often. Mevalonate kinase deficiency has additional signs and symptoms, and the severity depends on the type of the condition. There are two types of mevalonate kinase deficiency: a less severe type called hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome (HIDS) and a more severe type called mevalonic aciduria (MVA). During episodes of fever, people with HIDS typically have enlargement of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), abdominal pain, joint pain, diarrhea, skin rashes, and headache. Occasionally they will have painful sores called aphthous ulcers around their mouth. In females, these may also occur around the vagina. A small number of people with HIDS have intellectual disability, problems with movement and balance (ataxia), eye problems, and recurrent seizures (epilepsy). Rarely, people with HIDS develop a buildup of protein deposits (amyloidosis) in the kidneys that can lead to kidney failure. Fever episodes in individuals with HIDS can be triggered by vaccinations, surgery, injury, or stress. Most people with HIDS have abnormally high levels of immune system proteins called immunoglobulin D (IgD) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the blood. It is unclear why people with HIDS have high levels of IgD and IgA. Elevated levels of these immunoglobulins do not appear to cause any signs or symptoms. Individuals with HIDS do not have any signs and symptoms of the condition between fever episodes and typically have a normal life expectancy. People with MVA have signs and symptoms of the condition at all times, not just during episodes of fever. Affected children have developmental delay, progressive ataxia, progressive problems with vision, and failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive). Individuals with MVA typically have an unusually small, elongated head. In childhood or adolescence, affected individuals may develop eye problems such as inflammation of the eye (uveitis), a blue tint in the white part of the eye (blue sclera), an eye disorder called retinitis pigmentosa that causes vision loss, or clouding of the lens of the eye (cataracts). Affected adults may have short stature and may develop muscle weakness (myopathy) later in life. During fever episodes, people with MVA may have an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes. Children with MVA who are severely affected with multiple problems may live only into early childhood; mildly affected individuals may have a normal life expectancy.
   • Abnormal glucagon
   • Abnormal head circumference in relation to growth / age standard
   • Abnormal height in relation to growth / age standard
   • Abnormal hormonal requirement
   • Abnormal infradian biorhythm
   • Abnormal macromolecular binding
   • Abnormal microbiological finding in specimen from female genital organ
   • Abnormal microbiological finding in specimen from male genital organ
   • Abnormal monocyte production
   • Abnormal neurovascular status of distal limb
   • Abnormal nucleotide base sequence
   • Abnormal organ weight
   • Abnormal platelet production
   • Abnormal pregnanediol
   • Abnormal presence of alpha-fetoprotein
   • Abnormal presence of endometrial cells in specimen from a menopausal woman
   • Abnormal presence of galactose
   • Abnormal presence of hemoglobin
   • Abnormal presence of myoglobin
   • Abnormal presence of protein

Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV (MPS IV), also known as Morquio syndrome, is a progressive condition that mainly affects the skeleton. The rate at which symptoms worsen varies among affected individuals. The first signs and symptoms of MPS IV usually become apparent during early childhood. Affected individuals develop various skeletal abnormalities, including short stature, knock knees, and abnormalities of the ribs, chest, spine, hips, and wrists. People with MPS IV often have joints that are loose and very flexible (hypermobile), but they may also have restricted movement in certain joints. A characteristic feature of this condition is underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of a peg-like bone in the neck called the odontoid process. The odontoid process helps stabilize the spinal bones in the neck (cervical vertebrae). Odontoid hypoplasia can lead to misalignment of the cervical vertebrae, which may compress and damage the spinal cord, resulting in paralysis or death. In people with MPS IV, the clear covering of the eye (cornea) typically becomes cloudy, which can cause vision loss. Some affected individuals have recurrent ear infections and hearing loss. The airway may become narrow in some people with MPS IV, leading to frequent upper respiratory infections and short pauses in breathing during sleep (sleep apnea). Other common features of this condition include mildly "coarse" facial features, thin tooth enamel, multiple cavities, heart valve abnormalities, a mildly enlarged liver (hepatomegaly), and a soft out-pouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia) or lower abdomen (inguinal hernia). Unlike some other types of mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS IV does not affect intelligence. The life expectancy of individuals with MPS IV depends on the severity of symptoms. Severely affected individuals may survive only until late childhood or adolescence. Those with milder forms of the disorder usually live into adulthood, although their life expectancy may be reduced. Spinal cord compression and airway obstruction are major causes of death in people with MPS IV.

Kidney Diseases

Also called: Renal disease

Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fists. They are located near the middle of your back, just below the rib cage. Inside each kidney about a million tiny structures called nephrons filter blood. They remove waste products and extra water, which become urine. The urine flows through tubes called ureters to your bladder, which stores the urine until you go to the bathroom.

Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys unable to remove wastes. Causes can include genetic problems, injuries, or medicines. You are at greater risk for kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or a close family member with kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease damages the nephrons slowly over several years. Other kidney problems include:

Your doctor can run tests to find out if you have kidney disease. If your kidneys fail completely, a kidney transplant or dialysis can replace the work your kidneys normally do.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

   • Abnormal respiratory laboratory results
   • Abnormal response to sound
   • Abnormal response to visual stimuli
   • Abnormal secretin
   • Abnormal serotonin
   • Abnormal size
   • Abnormal small intestine secretion
   • Abnormal structure of alpha>1< globulin
   • Abnormal structure of alpha-globulin
   • Abnormal structure of phospholipid
   • Abnormal structure of physiologic substance
   • Abnormal systolic arterial pressure
   • Abnormal thickness
   • Abnormal thyroxine
   • Abnormal translucency
   • Abnormal triiodothyronine
   • Abnormal urogenital discharge
   • Abnormal vanillylmandelic acid
   • Abnormal venous pressure
   • Abnormal vital signs
   • Abnormal weight in relation to growth / age standard
   • Abnormally decreased organ weight
   • Abnormally increased laxity
   • Abnormally increased organ
   • Abnormally shaped pinna
   • Abnormally soft consistency
   • Abnormally thin
   • Absence of therapeutic response
   • Absence of vital signs
   • Absent bone marrow iron
   • Absent osmoregulation
   • Absent response to visual stimuli
   • Acenesthesia
   • Aceto-white reaction positive
   • Acute failure
   • Acute insufficiency
   • Adson's sign
   • Airway contains vomitus
   • Albumin in sample
   • Alcohol in blood specimen above reference range
   • Allergic facies
   • Altered bladder function
   • Amine test positive
   • Amniotic fetal cell abnormal
   • Anal, deep radial surgical margin not involved by tumor
   • Anal, distal surgical margin not involved by tumor
   • Anal, proximal surgical margin not involved by tumor
   • Angiocardiography equivocal
   • Animal inoculation: bacteria
   • Animal inoculation: fungus
   • Animal inoculation: parasite
   • Animal inoculation: virus
   • Anterior drawer test positive
   • Antibody studies abnormal
   • Anti-dengue IgG antibody negative
   • Anti-dengue IgG antibody positive
   • Anti-dengue IgM antibody negative
   • Anti-dengue IgM antibody positive
   • Antimicrobial activity
   • Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positive
   • Anti-nuclear factor positive
   • Anti-nuclear factor weakly positive
   • Aschheim-Zondek test positive
   • Ascitic fluid blood-stained
   • Ascitic fluid cloudy
   • Ascitic fluid purulent
   • Ascitic fluid: malignant cells
   • Ascitic fluid: pus cells
   • Ascorbate-cyanide screening test positive
   • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) level abnormal
   • Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype
   • Bacterial colony consistency, brittle
   • Bacterial colony elevation
   • Bacterial colony elevation, convex
   • Bacterial colony elevation, flat
   • Bacterial colony hemolysis, alpha
   • Bacterial colony hemolysis, beta
   • Bacterial colony morphology, erose margin
   • Bacterial colony shape, irregular
   • Bacterial growth in animal culture
   • Bacterial growth present
   • Band neutrophil count above reference range
   • Base deficit
   • Base excess
   • Basement membrane antibodies present
   • Bayonet sign
   • Bence Jones protein detected
   • Bipartite clavicle
   • Blood pressure ABNORMAL - deleted
   • Blue lips
   • Bluish discoloration of cervix
   • Bone conduction better than air
   • Bone densimetry abnormal
   • Bone marrow examination abnormal
   • BP reading labile
   • Bragard test positive
   • Braun von Fernwald's sign
   • BRCA1 gene mutation negative
   • BRCA1 gene mutation positive
   • BRCA2 gene mutation positive
   • Breast cancer genetic marker of susceptibility positive
   • Breast cold
   • Brucella ring test failed
   • Calculus calcium oxalate content
   • Calculus carbaptite content
   • Calculus hydroxyapatite content
   • Carcinoembryonic antigen above reference range
   • Carcinoembryonic antigen present
   • Cardiac stress recovery state
   • Catecholamine in urine specimen above reference range
   • Cellular atypia due to antineoplastic agent
   • Cervical discharge
   • Cherubic facies
   • Chlamydia polymerase chain reaction positive
   • Chronic insufficiency
   • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease finding
   • Clostridium difficile toxin A detected

Bleeding Disorders

Also called: Clotting disorders

Normally, if you get hurt, your body forms a blood clot to stop the bleeding. For blood to clot, your body needs cells called platelets and proteins known as clotting factors. If you have a bleeding disorder, you either do not have enough platelets or clotting factors or they don't work the way they should.

Bleeding disorders can be the result of other diseases, such as severe liver disease. They can also be inherited. Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder. Bleeding disorders can also be a side effect of medicines.

Heart Diseases

Also called: Cardiac diseases

If you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. It is also a major cause of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease and happens slowly over time. It's the major reason people have heart attacks.

Other kinds of heart problems may happen to the valves in the heart, or the heart may not pump well and cause heart failure. Some people are born with heart disease.

You can help reduce your risk of heart disease by taking steps to control factors that put you at greater risk:

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

   • Copies of human immunodeficiency virus ribonucleic acid above reference range
   • Corvisart's facies
   • Cough impulse of mass absent
   • C-reactive protein abnormal
   • Creatinine clearance-glomerular filtration abnormal
   • Crepitus uteri
   • Cribriform neoplasm pattern

Cytomegalovirus Infections

Also called: CMV

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus found around the world. It is related to the viruses that cause chickenpox and infectious mononucleosis (mono). Between 50 percent and 80 percent of adults in the United States have had a CMV infection by age 40. Once CMV is in a person's body, it stays there for life.

CMV is spread through close contact with body fluids. Most people with CMV don't get sick and don't know that they've been infected. But infection with the virus can be serious in babies and people with weak immune systems. If a woman gets CMV when she is pregnant, she can pass it on to her baby. Usually the babies do not have health problems. But some babies can develop lifelong disabilities.

A blood test can tell whether a person has ever been infected with CMV. Most people with CMV don't need treatment. If you have a weakened immune system, your doctor may prescribe antiviral medicine. Good hygiene, including proper hand washing, may help prevent infections.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

   • Cytoplasmic bacteria present
   • Danforth's sign

Shoulder Injuries and Disorders

Your shoulder joint is composed of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus (upper arm bone). Your shoulders are the most movable joints in your body. They can also be unstable because the ball of the upper arm is larger than the shoulder socket that holds it. To remain in a stable or normal position, the shoulder must be anchored by muscles, tendons and ligaments. Because the shoulder can be unstable, it is the site of many common problems. They include sprains, strains, dislocations, separations, tendinitis, bursitis, torn rotator cuffs, frozen shoulder, fractures and arthritis.

Usually shoulder problems are treated with RICE. This stands for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. Other treatments include exercise, medicines to reduce pain and swelling, and surgery if other treatments don't work.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

   • Decreased blood leukocyte number
   • Decreased blood volume
   • Decreased capillary filling time
   • Decreased ceroid
   • Decreased fertility
   • Decreased fluid pressure
   • Decreased functional residual capacity
   • Decreased general body function
   • Decreased granulocyte production
   • Decreased macromolecular binding
   • Decreased methemoglobin
   • Decreased need for sleep
   • Decreased red reflex
   • Decreased translucency
   • Decreased turbidity
   • Decreased vascular resistance
   • Decreased venous wedge pressure
   • Deep (radial) surgical margin not involved by tumor (colon/rectum)
   • Deep surgical margin involvement by tumor present
   • Deep surgical margin, focal, involvement by tumor present
   • Deep surgical margin, multifocal, involvement by tumor present
   • Defective molecular assembly
   • Deficiency of DNA repair

Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV (MPS IV), also known as Morquio syndrome, is a progressive condition that mainly affects the skeleton. The rate at which symptoms worsen varies among affected individuals. The first signs and symptoms of MPS IV usually become apparent during early childhood. Affected individuals develop various skeletal abnormalities, including short stature, knock knees, and abnormalities of the ribs, chest, spine, hips, and wrists. People with MPS IV often have joints that are loose and very flexible (hypermobile), but they may also have restricted movement in certain joints. A characteristic feature of this condition is underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of a peg-like bone in the neck called the odontoid process. The odontoid process helps stabilize the spinal bones in the neck (cervical vertebrae). Odontoid hypoplasia can lead to misalignment of the cervical vertebrae, which may compress and damage the spinal cord, resulting in paralysis or death. In people with MPS IV, the clear covering of the eye (cornea) typically becomes cloudy, which can cause vision loss. Some affected individuals have recurrent ear infections and hearing loss. The airway may become narrow in some people with MPS IV, leading to frequent upper respiratory infections and short pauses in breathing during sleep (sleep apnea). Other common features of this condition include mildly "coarse" facial features, thin tooth enamel, multiple cavities, heart valve abnormalities, a mildly enlarged liver (hepatomegaly), and a soft out-pouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia) or lower abdomen (inguinal hernia). Unlike some other types of mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS IV does not affect intelligence. The life expectancy of individuals with MPS IV depends on the severity of symptoms. Severely affected individuals may survive only until late childhood or adolescence. Those with milder forms of the disorder usually live into adulthood, although their life expectancy may be reduced. Spinal cord compression and airway obstruction are major causes of death in people with MPS IV.
   • Degenerative disorder
   • Degenerative sequelae of disorders
   • Delayed skin test reaction
   • Delivery risk
   • Destot sign
   • Destot sign present
   • Determination of bacterial growth
   • Dick test positive
   • Disorder of body system
   • Distress
   • Döhle body
   • Doll's head reflex absent
   • Doppler studies abnormal
   • Down's screening blood test abnormal
   • Downward drift of outstretched supinated arm
   • Drawer sign
   • Drug-related disorder
   • Dry stool
   • Duffy blood group
   • D-xylose absorption test abnormal
   • D-Xylose intolerance
   • Dynamic extension test negative
   • Dynamic extension test positive
   • Electrolytes abnormal
   • Endoscopy abnormal

Infectious Mononucleosis

Also called: Glandular fever, Kissing disease, Mono, Mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis, or "mono", is an infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. The virus spreads through saliva, which is why it's sometimes called "kissing disease." Mono occurs most often in teens and young adults. However, you can get it at any age. Symptoms of mono include

  • Fever
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen lymph glands

Sometimes you may also have a swollen spleen. Serious problems are rare.

A blood test can show if you have mono. Most people get better in two to four weeks. However, you may feel tired for a few months afterward. Treatment focuses on helping symptoms and includes medicines for pain and fever, warm salt water gargles and plenty of rest and fluids.

   • Equivocal plantar response left
   • Equivocal plantar response right
   • Excess subcutaneous fat of lower limb
   • Excess subcutaneous fat of upper limb
   • Excessive postexertional fatigue

Heart Diseases

Also called: Cardiac diseases

If you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. It is also a major cause of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease and happens slowly over time. It's the major reason people have heart attacks.

Other kinds of heart problems may happen to the valves in the heart, or the heart may not pump well and cause heart failure. Some people are born with heart disease.

You can help reduce your risk of heart disease by taking steps to control factors that put you at greater risk:

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

   • Extensor plantar response left
   • Extensor plantar response right
   • Extraprostatic extension of tumor indeterminate
   • Extraprostatic extension of tumor present, multifocal
   • Extraprostatic extension of tumor present, unifocal
   • Eye cornering in direction of sound absent
   • Eye cornering in direction of sound equivocal
   • Eye cornering in direction of sound present
   • Eyelash reflex present
   • Fast metabolic rate
   • Female sex hormones abnormal
   • Femoral nerve stretch test negative
   • Fetal anomaly present in specimen
   • Fetoplacental hormones abnormal
   • Final consonant deletion
   • Finding of ascitic fluid appearance
   • Finding of bacteria: serology

Mevalonate kinase deficiency

Mevalonate kinase deficiency is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, which typically begin during infancy. Each episode of fever lasts about 3 to 6 days, and the frequency of the episodes varies among affected individuals. In childhood the fevers seem to be more frequent, occurring as often as 25 times a year, but as the individual gets older the episodes occur less often. Mevalonate kinase deficiency has additional signs and symptoms, and the severity depends on the type of the condition. There are two types of mevalonate kinase deficiency: a less severe type called hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome (HIDS) and a more severe type called mevalonic aciduria (MVA). During episodes of fever, people with HIDS typically have enlargement of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), abdominal pain, joint pain, diarrhea, skin rashes, and headache. Occasionally they will have painful sores called aphthous ulcers around their mouth. In females, these may also occur around the vagina. A small number of people with HIDS have intellectual disability, problems with movement and balance (ataxia), eye problems, and recurrent seizures (epilepsy). Rarely, people with HIDS develop a buildup of protein deposits (amyloidosis) in the kidneys that can lead to kidney failure. Fever episodes in individuals with HIDS can be triggered by vaccinations, surgery, injury, or stress. Most people with HIDS have abnormally high levels of immune system proteins called immunoglobulin D (IgD) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the blood. It is unclear why people with HIDS have high levels of IgD and IgA. Elevated levels of these immunoglobulins do not appear to cause any signs or symptoms. Individuals with HIDS do not have any signs and symptoms of the condition between fever episodes and typically have a normal life expectancy. People with MVA have signs and symptoms of the condition at all times, not just during episodes of fever. Affected children have developmental delay, progressive ataxia, progressive problems with vision, and failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive). Individuals with MVA typically have an unusually small, elongated head. In childhood or adolescence, affected individuals may develop eye problems such as inflammation of the eye (uveitis), a blue tint in the white part of the eye (blue sclera), an eye disorder called retinitis pigmentosa that causes vision loss, or clouding of the lens of the eye (cataracts). Affected adults may have short stature and may develop muscle weakness (myopathy) later in life. During fever episodes, people with MVA may have an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes. Children with MVA who are severely affected with multiple problems may live only into early childhood; mildly affected individuals may have a normal life expectancy.
   • Finding of hyphal elements
   • Finding of irregular blood group antibody present
   • Finding of post-mortem isolation: organism
   • Finding of Providencia stuartii, urease positive
   • Finding of serology: organism
   • Finding of yeast with pseudohyphae
   • Finding related to attentiveness
   • Finding related to dying process
   • Finding related to expression of religious beliefs
   • Finding related to giving of individual health history
   • Finding related to pain control behavior
   • Finding related to perinatal risk factor
   • Finding related to reproductive risk factor
   • Finding related to substance use
   • Finger-finger test abnormal
   • Finkelstein's test positive
   • Follicle-stimulating hormone level abnormal
   • Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/Forced vital capacity (FVC) > 70% of predicted
   • Forearm DXA scan T score
   • Forearm DXA scan Z score
   • Forensic examination abnormal
   • Frame-shift mutation
   • Free androgenic index abnormal
   • Functional disorder

Heart Valve Diseases

Also called: Valvular heart disease

Your heart has four valves. Normally, these valves open to let blood flow through or out of your heart, and then shut to keep it from flowing backward. But sometimes they don't work properly. If they don't, you could have

  • Regurgitation - when blood leaks back through the valve in the wrong direction
  • Mitral valve prolapse - when one of the valves, the mitral valve, has "floppy" flaps and doesn't close tightly. It's one of the most common heart valve conditions. Sometimes it causes regurgitation.
  • Stenosis - when the valve doesn't open enough and blocks blood flow

Valve problems can be present at birth or caused by infections, heart attacks, or heart disease or damage. The main sign of heart valve disease is an unusual heartbeat sound called a heart murmur. Your doctor can hear a heart murmur with a stethoscope. But many people have heart murmurs without having a problem. Heart tests can show if you have a heart valve disease. Some valve problems are minor and do not need treatment. Others might require medicine, medical procedures, or surgery to repair or replace the valve.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

   • Fungus on microscopy
   • Gamma-glutamyl transferase level abnormal
   • Gas gangrene smell
   • Gastric aspirate containing blood
   • Gastric aspirate containing feces
   • Gastric aspirate containing liquor
   • Gene re-arrangement, alpha chain, T cell antigen receptor
   • Gene re-arrangement, gamma chain, T cell antigen receptor
   • Giving-way
   • Glucose in sample
   • Goodell's sign
   • Gorissenne's sign
   • Gower's eye sign
   • Gram-positive cocci in chains
   • Gram-positive cocci in clusters
   • Grey Turner's sign
   • Gross pathology - abnormality
   • Guthrie test abnormal
   • Hair absent
   • Halban's sign
   • Halo sign
   • Hard vein
   • Head compression test positive
   • Heaf: positive
   • Hearing test bilateral abnormality
   • Heat in vaginal fornix
   • Heel DXA scan T score
   • Heel DXA scan Z score
   • Helicobacter CLO test observations

Helicobacter Pylori Infections

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two-thirds of the world's population. It may be spread by unclean food and water, but researchers aren't sure. It causes Peptic ulcers and can also cause stomach cancer.

If you have symptoms of a peptic ulcer, your doctor will test your blood, breath or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of antibiotics and acid-reducing medicines. You will need to be tested after treatment to make sure the infection is gone.

To help prevent an H. pylori infection, you should

  • Wash your hands after using the bathroom and before eating
  • Eat properly prepared food
  • Drink water from a clean, safe source

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

   • Hemoglobin A1c between 7%-10% indicating borderline diabetic control
   • Hemoglobin A1c greater than 10% indicating poor diabetic control
   • Hepatitis B surface antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay positive
   • Hepatitis C virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test positive
   • Heterophile agglutin test abnormal
   • High grade (poorly differentiated to undifferentiated)
   • High risk of primary heart disease
   • High vaginal swab: fungal organism isolated
   • High vaginal swab: white cells seen
   • Homans' sign
   • Hormone abnormality
   • Hormone increase
   • Human immunodeficiency virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test positive
   • Human placental lactogen abnormal
   • Hurloid facies
   • Hutchinson's sign
   • Hyperbetaglobulinemia
   • Hypnic jerk

Movement Disorders

Imagine if parts of your body moved when you didn't want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia is abnormal uncontrolled movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia.

Nerve diseases cause many movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Other causes include injuries, autoimmune diseases, infections and certain medicines. Many movement disorders are inherited, which means they run in families.

Treatment varies by disorder. Medicine can cure some disorders. Others get better when an underlying disease is treated. Often, however, there is no cure. In that case, the goal of treatment is to improve symptoms and relieve pain.

   • Hypoalphaglobulinemia
   • Hypocellular bone marrow
   • Hypoglobulinemia
   • Hypopituitary facies
   • Imipramine in urine
   • Immediate skin test reaction

Balance Problems

Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or as if the room is spinning around you? If the feeling happens often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as if you were moving, spinning, or floating. They are one cause of falls and fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture.

Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. Others may involve another part of the body, such as the brain or the heart. Aging, infections, head injury, certain medicines, or problems with blood circulation may result in a balance problem.

If you are having balance problems, see your doctor. Balance disorders can be signs of other health problems, such as an ear infection or a stroke. In some cases, treating the illness that is causing the disorder will help with the balance problem. Exercises, a change in diet, and some medicines also can help.

NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

   • Inadequate achievement of developmental tasks
   • Inadequate analgesia
   • Inadequate flow to support prescribed dialysis blood flow
   • Increased 11-deoxy, 17-hydroxycorticosterone level
   • Increased adrenocorticotropic hormone level
   • Increased blood monocyte number
   • Increased body mass index

Ovarian Cancer

The ovaries are part of the female reproductive system. They produce a woman's eggs and female hormones. Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond.

Cancer of the ovary is not common, but it causes more deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian cancer may have no symptoms or just mild symptoms until the disease is in an advanced stage. Then it is hard to treat. Symptoms may include

  • A heavy feeling in the pelvis
  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Bleeding from the vagina
  • Weight gain or loss
  • Abnormal periods
  • Unexplained back pain that gets worse
  • Gas, nausea, vomiting, or loss of appetite

To diagnose ovarian cancer, doctors do one or more tests. They include a physical exam, a pelvic exam, lab tests, ultrasound, or a biopsy. Treatment is usually surgery followed by chemotherapy.

NIH: National Cancer Institute

   • Increased ceroid
   • Increased hormone secretion
   • Increased lead level
   • Increased leg circumference
   • Increased lung tracer uptake
   • Increased molecular dissociation
   • Increased platelet destruction
   • Increased pressure
   • Increased renin secretion
   • Increased testosterone level
   • Increased thickness
   • Increased translucency
   • Increased turbidity
   • Indoleacetic acid in urine specimen above reference range
   • Inefficiency
   • Inferior lateral surgical margin involvement by tumor present
   • Inflammation of specific body structures or tissue
   • Inflammation of specific body systems
   • Inflammatory disorder of extremity

Sjögren syndrome

Sjögren syndrome is a disorder whose main features are dry eyes and a dry mouth. The condition typically develops gradually beginning in middle adulthood, but can occur at any age. Sjögren syndrome is classified as an autoimmune disorder, one of a large group of conditions that occur when the immune system attacks the body's own tissues and organs. In Sjögren syndrome, the immune system primarily attacks the glands that produce tears (the lacrimal glands) and saliva (the salivary glands), impairing the glands' ability to secrete these fluids. Dry eyes may lead to itching, burning, a feeling of sand in the eyes, blurry vision, or intolerance of bright or fluorescent lighting. A dry mouth can feel chalky or full of cotton, and affected individuals may have difficulty speaking, tasting food, or swallowing. Because saliva helps protect the teeth and the tissues of the oral cavity, people with Sjögren syndrome are at increased risk of tooth decay and infections in the mouth. In most people with Sjögren syndrome, dry eyes and dry mouth are the primary features of the disorder, and general health and life expectancy are largely unaffected. However, in some cases the immune system also attacks and damages other organs and tissues. This complication is known as extraglandular involvement. Affected individuals may develop inflammation in connective tissues, which provide strength and flexibility to structures throughout the body. Disorders involving connective tissue inflammation are sometimes called rheumatic conditions. In Sjögren syndrome, extraglandular involvement may result in painful inflammation of the joints and muscles; dry, itchy skin and skin rashes; chronic cough; a hoarse voice; kidney and liver problems; numbness or tingling in the hands and feet; and, in women, vaginal dryness. Prolonged and extreme tiredness (fatigue) severe enough to affect activities of daily living may also occur in this disorder. A small number of people with Sjögren syndrome develop lymphoma, a blood-related cancer that causes tumor formation in the lymph nodes. When Sjögren syndrome first occurs on its own, it is called primary Sjögren syndrome. Some individuals who are first diagnosed with another rheumatic disorder, such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, later develop the dry eyes and dry mouth characteristic of Sjögren syndrome. In such cases, the individual is said to have secondary Sjögren syndrome. Other autoimmune disorders can also develop after the onset of primary Sjögren syndrome. In all, about half of all individuals with Sjögren syndrome also have another autoimmune disorder.

Muckle-Wells syndrome

Muckle-Wells syndrome is a disorder characterized by periodic episodes of skin rash, fever, and joint pain. Progressive hearing loss and kidney damage also occur in this disorder. People with Muckle-Wells syndrome have recurrent "flare-ups" that begin during infancy or early childhood. These episodes may appear to arise spontaneously or be triggered by cold, heat, fatigue, or other stresses. Affected individuals typically develop a non-itchy rash, mild to moderate fever, painful and swollen joints, and in some cases redness in the whites of the eyes (conjunctivitis). Hearing loss caused by progressive nerve damage (sensorineural deafness) typically becomes apparent during the teenage years. Abnormal deposits of a protein called amyloid (amyloidosis) cause progressive kidney damage in about one-third of people with Muckle-Wells syndrome; these deposits may also damage other organs. In addition, pigmented skin lesions may occur in affected individuals.
   • Intraabdominal pressure above reference range
   • Intraocular pressure left eye
   • Intraocular pressure right eye
   • Intratumoral/peritumoral lymphocytic response absent
   • Intratumoral/peritumoral lymphocytic response marked
   • Intratumoral/peritumoral lymphocytic response mild to moderate
   • Involuntary vocalization

Bowel Movement

Also called: BM, feces, poop, stool

A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of your body through the rectum and anus. Another name for stool is feces. It is made of what is left after your digestive system (stomach, small intestine, and colon) absorbs nutrients and fluids from what you eat and drink.

Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes through the large intestine too quickly. Constipation occurs when stool passes through the large intestine too slowly. Bowel incontinence is a problem controlling your bowel movements. Other abnormalities with bowel movements may be a sign of a digestive problem.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

   • Joint stress test positive
   • Kocher's sign
   • La antibody positive
   • Lachman test positive
   • Lasègue's arm sign
   • Left kidney absent
   • Left lateral surgical margin involvement by tumor present
   • Leukocyte maturation arrest

Cholesterol

Also called: HDL, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperlipidemia, Hyperlipoproteinemia, LDL

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that occurs naturally in all parts of the body. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much in your blood, it can combine with other substances in the blood and stick to the walls of your arteries. This is called plaque. Plaque can narrow your arteries or even block them.

High levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase your risk of heart disease. Your cholesterol levels tend to rise as you get older. There are usually no signs or symptoms that you have high blood cholesterol, but it can be detected with a blood test. You are likely to have high cholesterol if members of your family have it, if you are overweight or if you eat a lot of fatty foods.

You can lower your cholesterol by exercising more and eating more fruits and vegetables. You also may need to take medicine to lower your cholesterol.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

   • Lower limb arteriogram abnormal
   • Lumbar spine DXA scan T score
   • Lumbar spine DXA scan Z score
   • Lupus erythematosus cells present
   • Luteinizing hormone level abnormal
   • Lyme enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay positive
   • Macromolecular defective synthesis
   • Malignant neoplasm detection during interval between recommended screening examinations
   • Marrow megakaryocyte decrease
   • Marrow megakaryocytes abnormal
   • Marrow: primitive blast cells+
   • McMurray test positive
   • Medical Research Council (MRC) Breathlessness Scale: grade 3
   • Medical Research Council Breathlessness Scale grade 1
   • Medical Research Council Breathlessness Scale grade 2
   • Medical Research Council Breathlessness Scale grade 4
   • Medical Research Council Breathlessness Scale grade 5
   • Methylene blue test failed
   • Micropapillary neoplasm pattern
   • Mitral facies
   • Multiple aggregation
   • Negative inotropic effect on myocardium
   • Neurological diagnostic procedure - abnormal
   • Neuronal depopulation
   • New left ventricular wall motion abnormality compared to prior study
   • Nikolsky sign
   • Nitrazine yellow test for detection of rupture of amniotic membrane positive
   • Obturator sign
   • Offensive body odor
   • On examination - a deformity
   • On examination - a lump
   • On examination - a swelling
   • On examination - abnormal joint movement

Gum Disease

Also called: Periodontal disease

If you have gum disease, you're not alone. Many U.S. adults currently have some form of the disease. It ranges from simple gum inflammation, called gingivitis, to serious damage to the tissue and bone supporting the teeth. In the worst cases, you can lose teeth.

In gingivitis, the gums become red and swollen. They can bleed easily. Gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease. You can usually reverse it with daily brushing and flossing and regular cleanings by a dentist or dental hygienist. Untreated gingivitis can lead to periodontitis. If you have periodontitis, the gums pull away from the teeth and form pockets that become infected. If not treated, the bones, gums and connective tissue that support the teeth are destroyed.

NIH: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research

   • On examination - blood pressure labile
   • On examination - blood pressure reading raised
   • On examination - blood pressure reading very high
   • On examination - bone - unusual posture
   • On examination - bone abnormality
   • On examination - bone deformed
   • On examination - bone marrow- foreign cells
   • On examination - bone shortened
   • On examination - bone-abnormal movement
   • On examination - bone-abnormal prominence
   • On examination - bounding pulse
   • On examination - cardiac thrill
   • On examination - chest deformity
   • On examination - chest wall veins distended
   • On examination - collapsing pulse
   • On examination - color of left foot abnormal
   • On examination - continuous cardiac thrill
   • On examination - dark ground microorganism
   • On examination - deep sensation absent
   • On examination - deep sensation reduced
   • On examination - diastolic cardiac thrill
   • On examination - discolored teeth
   • On examination - Electron microscopy: bacteria
   • On examination - Electron microscopy: fungus
   • On examination - Electron microscopy: organism
   • On examination - Electron microscopy: parasite
   • On examination - Electron microscopy: virus
   • On examination - external female genitalia abnormal
   • On examination - exudate on tonsils
   • On examination - femur bone abnormal
   • On examination - foot bone abnormal
   • On examination - forearm bone abnormal
   • On examination - frontal sinus tenderness
   • On examination - hand bone abnormal
   • On examination - Hess test positive
   • On examination - jugular venous engorgement
   • On examination - laryngoscopy abnormal
   • On examination - lateral abdominal wall veins distended
   • On examination - left dorsalis pedis absent
   • On examination - left femoral pulse absent
   • On examination - Left foot deformity
   • On examination - left popliteal pulse absent
   • On examination - left posterior tibial pulse absent
   • On examination - lip swelling

Nose Injuries and Disorders

Also called: Nasal disorders

Your nose is important to your health. It filters the air you breathe, removing dust, germs, and irritants. It warms and moistens the air to keep your lungs and tubes that lead to them from drying out. Your nose also contains the nerve cells that help your sense of smell. When there is a problem with your nose, your whole body can suffer. For example, the stuffy nose of the common cold can make it hard for you to breathe, sleep, or get comfortable.

Many problems besides the common cold can affect the nose. They include

  • Deviated septum - a shifting of the wall that divides the nasal cavity into halves
  • Nasal polyps - soft growths that develop on the lining of your nose or sinuses
  • Nosebleeds
  • Rhinitis - inflammation of the nose and sinuses sometimes caused by allergies. The main symptom is a runny nose.
  • Nasal fractures, also known as a broken nose

   • On examination - localized chest deformity
   • On examination - lower leg bone abnormal
   • On examination - lymph nodes discrete
   • On examination - lymph nodes firm
   • On examination - lymph nodes fluctuant
   • On examination - lymph nodes hard
   • On examination - lymph nodes tender
   • On examination - lymph nodes tethered
   • On examination - macroscopic:organism seen
   • On examination - maxillary sinus tenderness
   • On examination - mouth - excessive salivation

Platelet Disorders

Also called: Thrombocyte disorders

Platelets are little pieces of blood cells. Platelets help wounds heal and prevent bleeding by forming blood clots. Your bone marrow makes platelets. Problems can result from having too few or too many platelets, or from platelets that do not work properly.

If your blood has a low number of platelets, you can be at risk for mild to serious bleeding. If your blood has too many platelets, you may have a higher risk of blood clots. With other platelet disorders, the platelets do not work as they should. For example, in von Willebrand Disease, the platelets cannot stick together or cannot attach to blood vessel walls. This can cause excessive bleeding.

Treatment of platelet disorders depends on the cause.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

   • On examination - multiple bones abnormal
   • On examination - nasal mucosa hyperemic
   • On examination - nasal mucosa pale

Nose Injuries and Disorders

Also called: Nasal disorders

Your nose is important to your health. It filters the air you breathe, removing dust, germs, and irritants. It warms and moistens the air to keep your lungs and tubes that lead to them from drying out. Your nose also contains the nerve cells that help your sense of smell. When there is a problem with your nose, your whole body can suffer. For example, the stuffy nose of the common cold can make it hard for you to breathe, sleep, or get comfortable.

Many problems besides the common cold can affect the nose. They include

  • Deviated septum - a shifting of the wall that divides the nasal cavity into halves
  • Nasal polyps - soft growths that develop on the lining of your nose or sinuses
  • Nosebleeds
  • Rhinitis - inflammation of the nose and sinuses sometimes caused by allergies. The main symptom is a runny nose.
  • Nasal fractures, also known as a broken nose

   • On examination - pelvic bone abnormal
   • On examination - plateau pulse
   • On examination - poor venous access
   • On examination - pulse absent
   • On examination - pulse irregularly irregular
   • On examination - pulse rate very fast
   • On examination - pulse rate very slow
   • On examination - pulse rate-pulse deficit
   • On examination - pulse regularly irregular
   • On examination - red reflex absent
   • On examination - rib abnormal
   • On examination - right dorsalis pedis pulse absent
   • On examination - right femoral pulse absent
   • On examination - Right foot color abnormal
   • On examination - Right foot deformity
   • On examination - right popliteal pulse absent
   • On examination - right posterior tibial pulse absent
   • On examination - Romberg test positive
   • On examination - shoulder bone abnormal
   • On examination - skin cyanosed over lesion
   • On examination - skin over lesion cold
   • On examination - skin over lesion hot
   • On examination - skin over lesion warm
   • On examination - skin red over lesion
   • On examination - skull abnormal
   • On examination - spine abnormal
   • On examination - spleen just palpable
   • On examination - stained microscopy: bacteria
   • On examination - stained microscopy: fungus
   • On examination - stained microscopy: organism
   • On examination - stained microscopy: parasite
   • On examination - stereognosis - reduced
   • On examination - systolic cardiac thrill
   • On examination - temperature discrimination absent
   • On examination - temperature discrimination reduced
   • On examination - thin pulse-pulsus parvus
   • On examination - upper arm bone abnormal
   • On examination - uvula deviated left
   • On examination - uvula deviated right
   • On rectal examination of prostate abnormality detected
   • Ortolani's test positive
   • Oto-acoustic emission test abnormal
   • Oto-acoustic emission test equivocal
   • Palpable mass
   • Papule

Skin Conditions

Also called: Cutaneous disorders, Dermatologic disorders

Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin

  • Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration
  • Keeps harmful microbes out, preventing infections
  • Helps you feel things like heat, cold, and pain
  • Keeps your body temperature even
  • Makes vitamin D when the sun shines on it

Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, and itching. Allergies, irritants, your genetic makeup, and certain diseases and immune system problems can cause rashes, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

   • Paradoxical cardiac wall motion
   • Parkinson's facies
   • Patellar compression test positive
   • Pathognomonic sign
   • Phalen's test positive
   • Phosphatase test failed
   • Physical health problems
   • Piskacek's sign
   • Pivot shift test - instability
   • Pivot shift test positive
   • Pleural invasion by tumor present
   • Pleuritic breathing
   • Polymerase chain reaction positive for hepatitis C viral ribonucleic acid genotype 1A
   • Polymerization
   • Poor auditory sequential memory
   • Poor eye contact
   • Poor visual sequential memory
   • Positive genetic finding
   • Positive horizontal board test
   • Positive reversibility test to a combination of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide
   • Postcoital cervic mucus - non-progressive motile and immotile sperm
   • Postcoital cervical mucus sperm - rapid progressive motility
   • Postcoital cervical mucus sperm - slow progressive motility
   • Postcoital test abnormal
   • Posterior drawer test negative
   • Posterior drawer test positive
   • Post-mortem - bacteria isolated
   • Problem, abnormal examination
   • Problem, abnormal test
   • Pseudolipomatosis
   • Pus cells
   • Radioactive iodine uptake above reference range
   • Radionuclide heart study abnormal
   • Raised cardiac enzyme or marker
   • Raised TSH level

Hyperthyroidism

Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck, just above your collarbone. It is one of your endocrine glands, which make hormones. Thyroid hormones control the rate of many activities in your body. These include how fast you burn calories and how fast your heart beats. All of these activities are your body's metabolism. If your thyroid is too active, it makes more thyroid hormones than your body needs. This is called hyperthyroidism.

Hyperthyroidism is more common in women, people with other thyroid problems, and those over 60 years old. Grave's disease, an autoimmune disorder, is the most common cause. Other causes include thyroid nodules, thyroiditis, consuming too much iodine, and taking too much synthetic thyroid hormone.

The symptoms can vary from person to person. They may include

  • Being nervous or irritable
  • Mood swings
  • Fatigue or muscle weakness
  • Heat intolerance
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Hand tremors
  • Rapid and irregular heartbeat
  • Frequent bowel movements or diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • Goiter, which is an enlarged thyroid that may cause the neck to look swollen

To diagnose hyperthyroidism, your doctor will look at your symptoms, blood tests, and sometimes a thyroid scan. Treatment is with medicines, radioiodine therapy, or thyroid surgery. No single treatment works for everyone.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

   • Rapid urease test for Helicobacter pylori infection positive
   • Reaginic antibodies present
   • Redistribution
   • Reflux of contrast medium
   • Respiratory flow rate abnormal

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Also called: RA

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a form of arthritis that causes pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function in your joints. It can affect any joint but is common in the wrist and fingers.

More women than men get rheumatoid arthritis. It often starts in middle age and is most common in older people. But children and young adults can also get it. You might have the disease for only a short time, or symptoms might come and go. The severe form can last a lifetime.

Rheumatoid arthritis is different from osteoarthritis, the common arthritis that often comes with older age. RA can affect body parts besides joints, such as your eyes, mouth and lungs. RA is an autoimmune disease, which means the arthritis results from your immune system attacking your body's own tissues.

No one knows what causes rheumatoid arthritis. Genes, environment and hormones might contribute. Treatments include medicine, lifestyle changes and surgery. These can slow or stop joint damage and reduce pain and swelling.

NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

   • Ribonucleoprotein antibody positive
   • Right lateral surgical margin involved by tumor
   • Ringed sideroblast
   • Rinne's test positive
   • Rubbery subcutaneous tissue
   • Rubella antibody present - immune
   • Rubella enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test result, greater than 10iu/ml rubella specific IgG detected
   • Rubella enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test result, greater than 15iu/ml rubella specific IgG detected
   • Rubella enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test result, less than 10iu/ml rubella specific IgG detected
   • Rubella enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test result; less than 15iu/ml rubella specific IgG detected
   • Sample contains cold agglutinins
   • Sample examination: abnormal
   • Sample grossly hemolyzed
   • Sample grossly icteric
   • Sample grossly lipemic
   • Sample slightly hemolyzed
   • Sample slightly icteric
   • Sample slightly lipemic
   • Sample xanthochromic
   • Sample: bacteria cultured
   • Sample: bacteria not sensitive
   • Sample: bacteria sensitive
   • Sample: direct microscopy: bacteria present
   • Sample: direct microscopy: fungus present
   • Sample: direct microscopy: parasite present
   • Sample: fungus isolated
   • Sample: no bacteria cultured
   • Sample: organism cultured
   • Sample: organism isolated
   • Sample: salmonella cultured
   • Sample: virus identified
   • Sample: yeast isolated
   • Schick test positive
   • Screened - abnormality
   • Screening - NAD
   • Seidel test, negative finding
   • Seidel test, positive finding
   • Sequela
   • Sequelae of disorders by system of sequelae
   • Sequelae of disorders classified by disorder-system
   • Sequelae of inflammatory diseases
   • Sequelae of poisoning or toxic effects
   • Sequelae of reproductive disorders
   • Serial peak expiratory flow rate abnormal
   • Serum 17-B-estriol level abnormal
   • Serum androstenedione abnormal
   • Serum bilirubin borderline low
   • Serum pregnancy test negative
   • Serum progesterone level abnormal
   • Serum testosterone level abnormal
   • Shifting abdominal dullness finding
   • Short stature for age
   • Sialuria

Sialic acid storage disease

Sialic acid storage disease is an inherited disorder that primarily affects the nervous system. People with sialic acid storage disease have signs and symptoms that may vary widely in severity. This disorder is generally classified into one of three forms: infantile free sialic acid storage disease, Salla disease, and intermediate severe Salla disease. Infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD) is the most severe form of this disorder. Babies with this condition have severe developmental delay, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive). They may have unusual facial features that are often described as "coarse," seizures, bone malformations, an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), and an enlarged heart (cardiomegaly). The abdomen may be swollen due to the enlarged organs and an abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites). Affected infants may have a condition called hydrops fetalis in which excess fluid accumulates in the body before birth. Children with this severe form of the condition usually live only into early childhood. Salla disease is a less severe form of sialic acid storage disease. Babies with Salla disease usually begin exhibiting hypotonia during the first year of life and go on to experience progressive neurological problems. Signs and symptoms of Salla disease include intellectual disability and developmental delay, seizures, problems with movement and balance (ataxia), abnormal tensing of the muscles (spasticity), and involuntary slow, sinuous movements of the limbs (athetosis). Individuals with Salla disease usually survive into adulthood. People with intermediate severe Salla disease have signs and symptoms that fall between those of ISSD and Salla disease in severity.
   • Sign
   • Simulated rotation test negative
   • Simulated rotation test positive
   • Single lump
   • Skin loss exposing muscle
   • Skin reaction extreme
   • Skin reaction weak
   • Slow relaxing peripheral reflexes
   • Slump test negative
   • Slump test positive
   • Small vessel invasion by tumor present
   • Smells of urine
   • Snout reflex absent
   • Snout reflex present
   • Spalding-Horner sign
   • Special cardiovascular system test abnormal
   • Special ENT procedure abnormal
   • Special examination - abnormality
   • Special female test abnormal
   • Special gastrointestinal tract test abnormal
   • Special male test abnormal
   • Specimen involvement by multifocal invasion
   • Specimen with abnormal presence of endometrial cells
   • Sperm motile no progression
   • Spirometry reversibility negative
   • Spirometry reversibility positive
   • Stemmer sign positive
   • Stepping reflex absent
   • Stepping reflex present
   • Stomach problem
   • Straight leg raising absent
   • Straight leg raising reduced
   • Stroke test finding
   • Stroke test negative
   • Stroke test positive
   • Subacute failure
   • Sucking reflex absent
   • Sucking reflex present
   • Superficial mass
   • Superior lateral surgical margin involved by tumor
   • Supinator reflex brisk
   • Supinator reflex delayed
   • Supinator reflex inverted
   • Supinator reflex present only with reinforcement
   • Supinator reflex reduced
   • Surgical lateral margin involved by tumor
   • Surgical margin involvement by tumor absent (breast)
   • Surgical margin involvement by tumor present (breast)
   • Surgical margins of excised lesion not clear
   • Swallowing reflex absent
   • Swallowing reflex present
   • Sweat test abnormal
   • Tache noire

Tick Bites

If you spend time outdoors or have pets that go outdoors, you need to beware of ticks. Ticks are small bloodsucking parasites. Many species transmit diseases to animals and people. Some of the diseases you can get from a tick bite are Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia.

Some ticks are so small that they can be difficult to see. Ticks may get on you if you walk through areas where they live, such as tall grass, leaf litter or shrubs.

Tick-borne diseases occur worldwide, including in your own backyard. To help protect yourself and your family, you should

  • Use a chemical repellent with DEET, permethrin or picaridin
  • Wear light-colored protective clothing
  • Tuck pant legs into socks
  • Avoid tick-infested areas
  • Check yourself, your children and your pets daily for ticks and carefully remove any ticks you find

   • Talar tilt
   • Theophylline level therapeutic
   • Thomas test positive
   • Tissue cytology abnormal
   • Tonometry abnormal
   • Toxic state
   • Toxoplasma gondii antibody positive

African iron overload

African iron overload is a condition that involves absorption of too much iron from the diet. The excess iron is stored in the body's tissues and organs, particularly the liver, bone marrow, and spleen. Humans cannot increase the excretion of iron, although some iron is lost through bleeding or when cells of the intestine (enterocytes) are shed at the end of the cells' lifespan. Iron levels in the body are primarily regulated through control of how much iron is absorbed from the diet. African iron overload results from a diet high in iron. It is particularly associated with consumption of a traditional African beer that contains dissolved iron from the metal drums in which it is brewed. Some evidence suggests that a genetic predisposition to absorbing too much iron may also be involved. In African iron overload, excess iron typically accumulates in liver cells (hepatocytes) and certain immune cells called reticuloendothelial cells. Reticuloendothelial cells include macrophages in the bone marrow and spleen and Kuppfer cells, which are specialized macrophages found in the liver. Kuppfer cells and other macrophages help protect the body against foreign invaders such as viruses and bacteria. When too much iron is absorbed, the resulting iron overload can eventually damage tissues and organs. Iron overload in the liver may lead to chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) in people with African iron overload. Cirrhosis increases the risk for developing a type of liver cancer called hepatocellular carcinoma. Iron overload in immune cells may affect their ability to fight infections. African iron overload is associated with an increased risk of developing infections such as tuberculosis. People with African iron overload may have a slightly low number of red blood cells (mild anemia), possibly because the iron that accumulates in the liver, bone marrow, and spleen is less available for production of red blood cells. Affected individuals also have high levels of a protein called ferritin in their blood, which can be detected with a blood test. Ferritin stores and releases iron in cells, and cells produce more ferritin in response to excess amounts of iron.
   • Transfer factor
   • Triceps reflex present only with reinforcement
   • Triceps reflex reduced
   • Troponin I above reference range
   • Two placental membranes present
   • Two point static discrimination absent
   • Two point static discrimination present
   • Tympanic membrane completely visible
   • Tympanic membrane partially visible
   • Tympanogram abnormal
   • Undifferentiated histological grade finding
   • Unequal blood pressure in arms
   • Unidentified pathogenic bacteria recovered
   • Unusual change in behavior
   • Upper limb arteriogram abnormal
   • Urobilinogenemia
   • Vaginal vault smear abnormal
   • Venogram abnormal
   • Villous atrophy
   • Vomit appearance - abnormal
   • Vomit examination abnormal
   • Vomit occult blood positive
   • Vomit odor feculent
   • Vomit odor offensive
   • Vomit toxicology: nil found
   • Vomit: excessive acidity
   • Vomit: excessive alkalinity
   • Warm extremities
   • Wilson's sign